Free Training Across The Web – Believe it or not, most of the training I’ve received over the years are sources I’ve found for free all over the web. I’ve shared a LOT of that info with you on this very website through my nearly 500 blog posts (to date). However, you should also check out sources such as YouTube. It’s true, places such as YouTube are filled with scammers and spammers, but mixed within those are some gems. For example, you can look up keynote speeches on affiliate marketing from various conferences, such as Affiliate Summit speakers. Using free content from around the web is hard to sort out and make sense of, so it’s best to use a service like Wealthy Affiliate because you are able to learn the things you need to learn, in the order you need to learn them, without all the distractions. However, as you progress, you may need to learn something specific, at which point you can go to free sources across the web to learn as you need it.
Most businesses require startup fees as well as a cash flow to finance the products being sold. However, affiliate marketing can be done at a low cost, meaning you can get started quickly and without much hassle. There are no affiliate program fees to worry about and no need to create a product. Beginning this line of work is relatively straightforward.
It is important to note, however, that StudioPress is now a subsidiary of WPEngine which is the company that actually does the web hosting on which StudioPress’s Genesis framework runs. The affiliate program only works with choosing the StudioPress framework and themes, not the actual hosting on WPEngine. WPEngine has a separate affiliate program for its hosting services, which yes, is a bit confusing.
Most businesses require startup fees as well as a cash flow to finance the products being sold. However, affiliate marketing can be done at a low cost, meaning you can get started quickly and without much hassle. There are no affiliate program fees to worry about and no need to create a product. Beginning this line of work is relatively straightforward.
So actually, the reason I personally signed up for Wealthy Affiliate is likely much different than the reason YOU want to sign up. Chances are, you want to learn about how to make money online legitimately, learn how to build a website, how to blog, and more importantly, how to earn money from that blog. I wasn’t looking for that. I already knew how to do all that stuff. Instead, I signed up as a way to vet the training, tools, and resources provided by Wealthy Affiliate because I wanted to see if it was something I could promote on this very website you’re reading.

If you add up all the services you get, the premium membership is a steal. For example, you’ll notice they include unlimited keyword research with a membership. Other paid keyword research tools sell for $49 or more just by themselves. Add in website hosting, and there’s another $10 / mo. Add on the website security package, and there’s another $10 per month (I’ve paid as much as $29 / mo just for website security). Just based on those things alone, Wealthy Affiliate is a great deal with all of the resources and tools you need in one convenient place. Not to mention all of the training, tutorials, and support that is included with the membership.
Hi, I joined Wealthy Affiliate several years ago for a very short period of time. I needed to earn money quickly and didn’t have enough knowledge to know that creating a business took much time. I couldn’t afford to continue with the program. My priorities have changed and God has blessed me enough that I am now able to afford the program. I would like to re-join with the monthly plan for a couple of months before I take the yearly plunge. Am I able to get the $19.00 first month fee or do I have to start at $49.00?
Now that you’ve got the basics down, we’ll dig into the strategies and tactics that will help you accelerate your affiliate marketing success. We’ll revisit some of the crucial basics, go over the must-dos of affiliate marketing, explore different promotion types, dig into some advanced affiliate marketing strategies, and uncover ways to stay on track when the going gets tough.
The implementation of affiliate marketing on the internet relies heavily on various techniques built into the design of many web-pages and websites, and the use of calls to external domains to track user actions (click tracking, Ad Sense) and to serve up content (advertising) to the user. Most of this activity adds time[citation needed] and is generally a nuisance to the casual web-surfer and is seen as visual clutter.[citation needed] Various countermeasures have evolved over time to prevent or eliminate the appearance of advertising when a web-page is rendered. Third party programs (Ad-Aware, Adblock Plus, Spybot, pop-up blockers, etc.) and particularly, the use of a comprehensive HOSTS file can effectively eliminate the visual clutter and the extra time and bandwidth needed to render many web pages. The use of specific entries in the HOSTS file to block these well-known and persistent marketing and click-tracking domains can also aid in reducing a system's exposure to malware by preventing the content of infected advertising or tracking servers to reach a user's web-browser.[citation needed]
Individual sellers and companies offering products or services have to deal with their consumers and ensure they are satisfied with what they have purchased. Thanks to the affiliate marketing structure, you’ll never have to be concerned with customer support or customer satisfaction. The entire job of the affiliate marketer is to link the seller with the consumer. The seller deals with any consumer complaints after you receive your commission from the sale.
Affiliate marketing is commonly confused with referral marketing, as both forms of marketing use third parties to drive sales to the retailer. The two forms of marketing are differentiated, however, in how they drive sales, where affiliate marketing relies purely on financial motivations, while referral marketing relies more on trust and personal relationships.[citation needed]
Given that I am still in reading and preparation phase, I am mainly interested to overlap my niche with real life interests so I could have motivation to produce content on regular basis. Two that I am highly interested are PC parts and Fitness. I am aware they are too general subjects with lot of sites doing the same, but my idea is to produce constant review on PC parts, Laptops, Mobile devices, Accessories all in different categories, create lists like top5 or 10 under XX budget etc. Similar approach I would use if I I decide to go with Fitness path and divide content training advice, review of fat loss methods, supplementation, nutrition etc. I am aware that this will be a long journey and that it can pass few months before sales start to kick in and that’s the risk I am ready to take. My questions are:

Best Forex Partners (BFP) was established in 2011 by a group of international financiers and global online marketing professionals who saw a need to change the nature of affiliate marketing for the better.  In a few short years they combined their over 60 years of combined financial and marketing experience to create a new way to affiliate market and have never looked back!
The premium Wealthy Affiliate membership is where you get access to absolutely everything. If you’re serious about building an online business, I have never in my 8 years in this industry seen such an amazing community full of help, tools, and resources. I’ve been a member at several other online marketing sites, but this one blows the rest of them out of the water.
Leadpages claims that its affiliate program is not exclusively for affiliate marketers, which is true, but the narrow focus of this niche means that only professionals affiliate marketers will ever be able to earn significant income from the program. Leadpages’s affiliate program does offer quite a lot of different options (webinars, videos, blog posts, free marketing courses, etc.) to send referrals to, which can lead to higher conversion rates if done correctly.

StudioPress is a WordPress hosting service and framework that is designed to make setting up and running a WordPress site much simpler and easier. StudioPress comes with its own unique themes and SEO tools, collectively known as the “Genesis framework.”. Their affiliate program is solely for referrals to pay for a StudioPress framework account or buying a StudioPress theme. Previously, the affiliate program also included web hosting, but this is now managed separately by StudioPress’s owner, WPEngine.
You can make really good commissions from the eBay partner but it depends on the products which you decide to promote. Interestingly the commission levels vary according to where you are in the world not just on the products you decide to promote. One of the great reasons to sign up is that you can earn DOUBLE commissions in your first three months. They offer free to use link generators, ad creatives and widgets for you to promote different eBay items. eBay has over 162 Million active buyers which means there is a great potential to convert your traffic.

Affiliate marketing has now invaded Hollywood? We know it invaded US politics in Washington as some politicians (current and retired) are silent affiliate marketers or in MLM. Maybe we can look forward to hearing in the next few years about more celebrities going from actors and actresses to home-based affiliate marketers. Wouldn’t that be something?


Well, actually you do. There are over 500,000,000 (yes, 500 MILLION) products that you can promote as an affiliate marketer online. This means you don’t have to carry any inventory for any of these products/services. You simply link to companies through your special affiliate links, and exchange and they give you a cut (%) of every sale that you make.

Wealthy Affiliate is different than anything out there, and you will understand that as soon as you step foot into the community. We always recommend you get started on the free Starter membership, that way any insecurity or apprehension about this industry is removed. Then you can make your own educated decision as to how WA fits into your life/business.
Some advertisers offer multi-tier programs that distribute commission into a hierarchical referral network of sign-ups and sub-partners. In practical terms, publisher "A" signs up to the program with an advertiser and gets rewarded for the agreed activity conducted by a referred visitor. If publisher "A" attracts publishers "B" and "C" to sign up for the same program using his sign-up code, all future activities performed by publishers "B" and "C" will result in additional commission (at a lower rate) for publisher "A".

A browser extension is a plug-in that extends the functionality of a web browser. Some extensions are authored using web technologies such as HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. Most modern web browsers have a whole slew of third-party extensions available for download. In recent years, there has been a constant rise in the number of malicious browser extensions flooding the web. Malicious browser extensions will often appear to be legitimate as they seem to originate from vendor websites and come with glowing customer reviews.[32] In the case of affiliate marketing, these malicious extensions are often used to redirect a user’s browser to send fake clicks to websites that are supposedly part of legitimate affiliate marketing programs. Typically, users are completely unaware this is happening other than their browser performance slowing down. Websites end up paying for fake traffic number, and users are unwitting participants in these ad schemes.
The biggest issue I’ve had with previous training programs and marketing communities is how outdated they get. With a Wealthy Affiliate Premium membership, you don’t need to worry about that. New trainings are added daily including live weekly video training sessions. You can also search and browse past trainings they’ve created over the years. With a premium membership, you also get unlimited access to community features which is one of my favorite aspects of Wealthy Affiliate. I spend hours per day simply chatting and messaging people who clicked on my Wealthy Affiliate affiliate link. When they use my link to sign up, I get notified, and the personal one-on-one coaching can begin. No other platform has offered this option before.
In 1994, Tobin launched a beta version of PC Flowers & Gifts on the Internet in cooperation with IBM, who owned half of Prodigy.[10] By 1995 PC Flowers & Gifts had launched a commercial version of the website and had 2,600 affiliate marketing partners on the World Wide Web. Tobin applied for a patent on tracking and affiliate marketing on January 22, 1996, and was issued U.S. Patent number 6,141,666 on Oct 31, 2000. Tobin also received Japanese Patent number 4021941 on Oct 5, 2007, and U.S. Patent number 7,505,913 on Mar 17, 2009, for affiliate marketing and tracking.[11] In July 1998 PC Flowers and Gifts merged with Fingerhut and Federated Department Stores.[12]

The average commission rate is $58 per the Shopify website. Shopify’s commissions are paid according to different metrics. For instance, if a referral signs up for the Shopify Plus enterprise plan (the highest tier), the payout is a flat $2,000. Referrals who sign up for the standard plan earn a $598 commission. The payout for a Basic account is $58. Commissions are calculated as follows: you will earn two times the monthly rate but only two months after the user has been a paying customer.


A relative newcomer to the affiliate space, MaxBounty was founded in 2004 in Ottawa, Canada. MaxBounty claims to be the only affiliate network built specifically for affiliates. MaxBounty is exclusively a CPA (Cost Per Action/Acquisition) company that doesn’t deal with ad banners or the like, just customer links that the publisher (blogger) chooses where to place on their website.
I have been with WA 2 years this month and I wouldn’t look back, the knowledge and financial freedom I have gained is a credit to the platform set up by WA. Some people say how $49 is too much a month however when you consider what’s included like hosting, training, great community, tools and more I would argue that they set the price to low as there is alot of value.

Site Builder Package - There is a steep learning curve for beginners to set up their website. No kidding! Tried it with other web hosting providers in the past when I was a beginner, and it was a nightmare. But with WA Site Builder, you can quickly build a website within 30 seconds! Wealthy Affiliate has streamlined the entire online business setup process.
Affiliate marketing is commonly confused with referral marketing, as both forms of marketing use third parties to drive sales to the retailer. The two forms of marketing are differentiated, however, in how they drive sales, where affiliate marketing relies purely on financial motivations, while referral marketing relies more on trust and personal relationships.[citation needed]
Here are some additional pictures from the conference. This first picture is from the Wynn Hotel. Kyle and Carson, the owners of Wealthy Affiliate, rented out an incredible 2 story suite for us to party in. They had top shelf drinks, entertainment, mouth-watering food, and we were simply treated like ballers. Networking and making connections with these other successful affiliate marketers was invaluable.

The phrase, "Affiliates are an extended sales force for your business", which is often used to explain affiliate marketing, is not completely accurate. The primary difference between the two is that affiliate marketers provide little if any influence on a possible prospect in the conversion process once that prospect is directed to the advertiser's website. The sales team of the advertiser, however, does have the control and influence up to the point where the prospect either a) signs the contract, or b) completes the purchase.
SkimLinks works very similarly to VigLinks in that it is designed for bloggers who don’t want to do a lot of hands-on work to participate in an affiliate program. SkimLinks also works much like VigLinks in that it uses a plugin or script to create dynamic links in your content to send visitors to higher paying offers from merchants. SkimLinks claims to work with over 24,000 merchants/advertisers.
Cost per action/sale methods require that referred visitors do more than visit the advertiser's website before the affiliate receives a commission. The advertiser must convert that visitor first. It is in the best interest of the affiliate to send the most closely targeted traffic to the advertiser as possible to increase the chance of a conversion. The risk and loss are shared between the affiliate and the advertiser.
Leadpages claims that its affiliate program is not exclusively for affiliate marketers, which is true, but the narrow focus of this niche means that only professionals affiliate marketers will ever be able to earn significant income from the program. Leadpages’s affiliate program does offer quite a lot of different options (webinars, videos, blog posts, free marketing courses, etc.) to send referrals to, which can lead to higher conversion rates if done correctly.
Now that you’ve got the basics down, we’ll dig into the strategies and tactics that will help you accelerate your affiliate marketing success. We’ll revisit some of the crucial basics, go over the must-dos of affiliate marketing, explore different promotion types, dig into some advanced affiliate marketing strategies, and uncover ways to stay on track when the going gets tough.
8Binary offers any level trader the opportunity to use market leading trading platforms to manage risk and maximize profits. With a truly global reach and renowned customer service, 8Binary is a secure and safe way to trade Binary Options. Committed to offering all of its clients the safest and most user-friendly experience, 8Binary is the trusted name in the market. Whether you are a beginner, retail investor or a professional trading entity, 8Binary guarantees the best user experience possible.
Get back to class! This is something we never liked to hear in high school, but when it comes to building a business online, it is always nice to have current, live and interactive training you can take part in. Every Friday there is a live class that you can take part in as a Premium member of Wealthy Affiliate.  Here are a few of the recent ones.
Adding to that, most of the country’s highest-ranked teaching and research hospitals are affiliated with M.D. schools—including the 20 best in the nation as rated by U.S. News & World Report. — Carolyn L. Todd, SELF, "What Is a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, and Should You See One?," 6 Feb. 2019 He has been affiliated with churches in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, Lincoln Heights, Ohio, and Baltimore, Maryland, before being elected the bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of North Carolina. — Elizabeth Angell, Town & Country, "Who Is Bishop Michael Curry?," 5 Dec. 2018 Many of the trainers along your journey are affiliated with famed series villains Team Rocket, who enjoy a decidedly Saturday Morning Cartoon flavor in their cheesy shouts against you. — Sam Machkovech, Ars Technica, "Pokemon Let’s Go: Well, I guess my adult ass is going to collect them all," 16 Nov. 2018 SpaceX is not affiliated with any of the startups currently working to build a real hyperloop, but the super-fast transportation system is still close to Musk’s heart. — Andrew J. Hawkins, The Verge, "WARR Hyperloop pod hits 284 mph to win SpaceX competition," 23 July 2018 This giveaway is not affiliated with/supported by Kroger. — Susan Tompor, Detroit Free Press, "Amazon Prime Day: Gift cards, coupons and other scams to watch for," 14 July 2018 Most of the 20 teams do not currently use their full quota of 17 non-homegrown players, a status which means they have not been affiliated to an English or Welsh club for three complete seasons or 36 months before their 21st birthday. — Rob Harris, The Seattle Times, "Post-Brexit bid to curb foreign player imports splits soccer," 21 Nov. 2018 Evangelical pastor Silas Malafaia said on Twitter that de Oliveira was once affiliated with the left-wing Socialism and Liberty Party, which like most of Brazil's political parties criticized the attack and called for a thorough investigation. — Fox News, "Suspect in Brazil candidate stabbing moved to new prison," 8 Sep. 2018 The Daily Emerald reported he was affiliated with the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity. — The Oregonian/oregonlive, OregonLive.com, "University of Oregon student, 21, found dead at Shasta Lake," 19 May 2018
Want social proof of success? All you need to do is have a look around the community. Success is happening everywhere and there are new stories every day, from people making their first sale online, to people making their first $1,000…to quitting their day jobs, to selling websites for $30,000+.   Here is just a small sample of success stories that you will see, there are 1,000’s like this and you will see new ones posted daily.
Want to know a little secret about this site? When I first started this site, I only planned on monetizing by selling my OWN affiliate marketer training course. About halfway through creating my course, I realized that I would never be able to provide the type of quality product I intended. Even if I could, it would become outdated so fast that in just a couple years, I wouldn’t be able to sell it anymore.

The fact of the matter is, if you put forth the effort and apply what is taught to you in the training (and follow the 4 steps to success methodology), you are going to come out on top. Sure, it will take some hard work. Anything worth working for takes, WORK…and owning your own, successful long term business should be one of those goals that you have.
The phrase, "Affiliates are an extended sales force for your business", which is often used to explain affiliate marketing, is not completely accurate. The primary difference between the two is that affiliate marketers provide little if any influence on a possible prospect in the conversion process once that prospect is directed to the advertiser's website. The sales team of the advertiser, however, does have the control and influence up to the point where the prospect either a) signs the contract, or b) completes the purchase.
StudioPress is a WordPress hosting service and framework that is designed to make setting up and running a WordPress site much simpler and easier. StudioPress comes with its own unique themes and SEO tools, collectively known as the “Genesis framework.”. Their affiliate program is solely for referrals to pay for a StudioPress framework account or buying a StudioPress theme. Previously, the affiliate program also included web hosting, but this is now managed separately by StudioPress’s owner, WPEngine.
In the case of cost per mille/click, the publisher is not concerned about whether a visitor is a member of the audience that the advertiser tries to attract and is able to convert, because at this point the publisher has already earned his commission. This leaves the greater, and, in case of cost per mille, the full risk and loss (if the visitor cannot be converted) to the advertiser.
Another one of the highest paying and most popular dating affiliate programs is eHarmony, which is based on the actual earnings that can be made from each referred sale. Up to $188 can be made from a single sale. In general, the members at eHarmony are typically looking to find serious long term relationships, so many of them are willing to pay extra to find similar people.
For example, when I first started back in 2009, I learned from a service called Solo Build It. I knew absolutely nothing about building an online business, let alone what “affiliate marketing” even meant. However, they changed my life and taught me how to build money-making websites online, which is what I’ve been doing with my life ever since. This is another great service to consider and you can read my review of Solo Build It here.

Hi, I joined Wealthy Affiliate several years ago for a very short period of time. I needed to earn money quickly and didn’t have enough knowledge to know that creating a business took much time. I couldn’t afford to continue with the program. My priorities have changed and God has blessed me enough that I am now able to afford the program. I would like to re-join with the monthly plan for a couple of months before I take the yearly plunge. Am I able to get the $19.00 first month fee or do I have to start at $49.00?


The entire reason I created this site is because as an affiliate marketer, I started getting upset with the lack of ethics and misinformation being spread from MANY affiliate marketers, especially as it pertains to the “make money online” niche. So many online marketers out there promise you quick easy money if you just sign up and pay for this or that. Quite frankly, I’m sick of it. Growing an affiliate marketing business is just like starting any other business – it takes time, effort, and a lot of trial and error. I won’t get into it here, but if you’d like you can read my honest article about how long it takes to earn a full-time living with affiliate marketing.
What a fantastic package! I wish I’d found Wealthy Affiliates years ago. I couldn’t believe that they have been around for so long! With the training and support that they offer for the price they are asking, how can I possibly fail! Well, I suppose not taking action would be a big one. Thanks for putting together a very informative article. Great work!
Wealthy Affiliate is different than anything out there, and you will understand that as soon as you step foot into the community. We always recommend you get started on the free Starter membership, that way any insecurity or apprehension about this industry is removed. Then you can make your own educated decision as to how WA fits into your life/business.
Websites consisting mostly of affiliate links have previously held a negative reputation for underdelivering quality content. In 2005 there were active changes made by Google, where certain websites were labeled as "thin affiliates".[34] Such websites were either removed from Google's index or were relocated within the results page (i.e., moved from the top-most results to a lower position). To avoid this categorization, affiliate marketer webmasters must create quality content on their websites that distinguishes their work from the work of spammers or banner farms, which only contain links leading to merchant sites.
If you’re thinking about working with an affiliate marketing network, the world’s most popular marketplace can be a great place to start. We’ll cover how to sign up and start picking and promoting Amazon products, as well as strategies for success—the must-dos and must-don’ts that go into making Amazon a key piece of your affiliate marketing stable.
Earning income via Target affiliates, however, requires a bit of work. Cookies expire in just seven days, and commissions can be as low as just one percent, so you’ll need to be operating a high-traffic website in order to make serious cash with this program. But with Target’s much-beloved brand reputation and vast catalog, relevant product links can be a big earner for established influencers.
…But doesn’t being an affiliate for Wealthy Affiliate make me just another one of those affiliate marketers who is being biased and just trying to make a buck off of you? Well, ummmm…. Sort of! But at least I’m honest about it, right? I hope you give me a chance by continuing to read this Wealthy Affiliate review. I have no intention of making this one big sales pitch. I just want to provide you with the information and allow you to make your own decision. If I get a commission, great! If not, that’s ok too. Here’s a screenshot of my Wealthy Affiliate profile.

Another one of the highest paying and most popular dating affiliate programs is eHarmony, which is based on the actual earnings that can be made from each referred sale. Up to $188 can be made from a single sale. In general, the members at eHarmony are typically looking to find serious long term relationships, so many of them are willing to pay extra to find similar people.


Let’s say you have a promotions page where you’re promoting a product via affiliate links. If you currently get 5,000 visits/month at a 2% conversion rate, you have 100 referrals. To get to 200 referrals, you can either focus on getting 5,000 more visitors, or simply increasing the conversion rate to 4%. Which sounds easier? Instead of spending months building domain authority with blogging and guest posts to get more organic traffic, you just have to increase the conversion rate by 2%. This can include landing page optimization, testing your calls-to-action, and having a conversion rate optimization strategy in place. By testing and optimizing your site, you’ll get far better results with much less effort. 
Affiliate marketing has now invaded Hollywood? We know it invaded US politics in Washington as some politicians (current and retired) are silent affiliate marketers or in MLM. Maybe we can look forward to hearing in the next few years about more celebrities going from actors and actresses to home-based affiliate marketers. Wouldn’t that be something?
Cost per mille requires only that the publisher make the advertising available on his or her website and display it to the page visitors in order to receive a commission. Pay per click requires one additional step in the conversion process to generate revenue for the publisher: A visitor must not only be made aware of the advertisement but must also click on the advertisement to visit the advertiser's website.
The problem with affiliate marketing, like many other home business options, are the so-called gurus and get-rich-quick programs that suggest affiliate marketing can be done fast and with little effort. Odds are you've read claims of affiliate marketing programs that say you can make hundreds of thousands of dollars a month doing almost nothing ("Three clicks to rich!"). Or, they suggest you can set up your affiliate site, and then forget it, except to check your bank deposits.
Here are some additional pictures from the conference. This first picture is from the Wynn Hotel. Kyle and Carson, the owners of Wealthy Affiliate, rented out an incredible 2 story suite for us to party in. They had top shelf drinks, entertainment, mouth-watering food, and we were simply treated like ballers. Networking and making connections with these other successful affiliate marketers was invaluable.
Products are now put in a category. The commission will be based on the category each product has been placed in whether or not the category is correct. For instance, I had a sale for a child riding toy tractor. Instead of it being in toys category which would have only earned me 3%, it was actually placed in lawn and garden category which I then actually earned 8% instead. 

The implementation of affiliate marketing on the internet relies heavily on various techniques built into the design of many web-pages and websites, and the use of calls to external domains to track user actions (click tracking, Ad Sense) and to serve up content (advertising) to the user. Most of this activity adds time[citation needed] and is generally a nuisance to the casual web-surfer and is seen as visual clutter.[citation needed] Various countermeasures have evolved over time to prevent or eliminate the appearance of advertising when a web-page is rendered. Third party programs (Ad-Aware, Adblock Plus, Spybot, pop-up blockers, etc.) and particularly, the use of a comprehensive HOSTS file can effectively eliminate the visual clutter and the extra time and bandwidth needed to render many web pages. The use of specific entries in the HOSTS file to block these well-known and persistent marketing and click-tracking domains can also aid in reducing a system's exposure to malware by preventing the content of infected advertising or tracking servers to reach a user's web-browser.[citation needed]
I agree with all the points you have mentioned. Talking about zero upsells, for instance, the best thing online, is setting aside a budget, and being able to respect that budget without exploding it. This is the amazing part about Wealthy Affiliate. You can plan 2,3,or even 4 years in advance and that budget will still be very relevant and applicable. 
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